Is typified by the Flappers of the 1920's - it's a high energy dance that can be either dance solo or with a partner. The solo dancing was probably a necessity through the lack of men following WW1.
The definitive characteristics of Charleston are its energy, twisty feet and high kicks.
In many ways, Charleston is a forerunner of LindyHop, its kicks were incorporated into Lindy but it remains a dance form in its own right. Charleston itself is thought to have derived from the 'Juba' an early pre-Swing dance style which was performed on in an early silent Movie 'Running Wild' the choreography may subsequently have been emulated by the audiences. No doubt the Savoy Ballroom dancers of Harlem added their own flare.
This is what wikipedia says about Charleston
end of page